1 See, for example, Claudia Goldin and Lawrence F. Katz The Race Between Education and Technology (Harvard, 2008).
2 Rory O'Sullivan and Alistair Johnson, "No End in Sight? The Long-Term Youth Jobs Gap and what it Means for America" (Washington, DC: Young Invincibles, 2012), http://younginvincibles.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/No-End-In-Sight-7.9.12.pdf.
3 First Focus, Children’s Budget 2012.
4 Donna Cooper, Adam Hersh, and Ann O’Leary, The Competition that Really Matters: Comparing US, Chinese, and Indian Investments in the Next-Generation Workforce, (Washington, DC: The Center for American Progress, 2012), http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/economy/report/2012/08/21/11983/the-competition-that-really-matters/.
5 John Michael Lee Jr et al., The College Completion Agenda 2011 Progress Report, (College Board, 2011,) 7, http://completionagenda.collegeboard.org/sites/default/files/reports_pdf/Progress_Report_2011.pdf.
6 Clive Belfield, Henry Levin, and Rachel Rosen, "The Economic Value of Opportunity Youth" (January 2012), 1, http://www.civicenterprises.net/MediaLibrary/Docs/econ_value_opportunity_youth.pdf.
7 State of Young America: The Poll (Washington D.C.: DEMOS and Young Invincibles, 2011), accessed October 31, 2012, http://www.demos.org/state-of-young-america.
8 Tamara Draut et al., The State of Young America, (Washington, DC: DEMOS and Young Invincibles, 2011), 11-12, http://www.demos.org/sites/default/files/publications/SOYA_TheDatabook_2.pdf.
9 John Michael Lee Jr et al., The College Completion Agenda 2011 Progress Report, (College Board, 2011,) 7, http://completionagenda.collegeboard.org/sites/default/files/reports_pdf/Progress_Report_2011.pdf.
10 OECD, "Indicator A3: How Many Students are Expected to Finish Tertiary Education," (OECD Publishing, 2012lishing, 2012), Table A3.2, http://www.oecd.org/edu/educationataglanceindicatorsrawdata.htm.
11 Carnevale, Smith, and Jeff Strohl, Help Wanted: Projections of Jobs and Education Requirements Through 2018.
12 Phil Oliff, Chris Mai, and Michael Leachman, New School Year Brings More Cuts in State Funding for Schools, (Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 2012), http://www.cbpp.org/ files/9-4-12sfp.pdf.
13 Rohit Chopra, "Too Big to Fail: Student debt hits a trillion," Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, 2012, http://www.consumerfinance.gov/blog/too-big-to-fail-student-debt-hits-a-trillion/.
14 Federal Student Aid per student includes all student aid accounts in subfunction 502 (higher education) as reported in OMB’s Public Budget Database. Omits negative subsidies and downward re-estimates of subsidies. Totals for 2005 and 2006 have been adjusted to exclude aggregate consolidation of loans that occurred during those Fiscal Years in advance of loan terms that changed on July 1, 2006, as those consolidations did not constitute additional aid to students.
15 White House Office of Management and Budget, OMB Report Pursuant to the Sequestration Transparency Act of 2012 (P. L. 112-155), (2012), http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/legislative_reports/stareport.pdf.
16 Senator Tom Harkin, Under Threat: Sequestration’s Impact on Nondefense Jobs and Services, (Washington D.C.: United States Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pension Committee, 2012) 39-40.
17 "Testimony of Secretary Duncan before the Senate Labor, Health and Human Services and Education Appropriations Subcommittee,” (2012), http://www.ed.gov/news/speeches/testimony-secretary-duncan-senate-labor-health-and-human-services-and-education-approp.
18 OECD, What Students Know and Can Do: Student Performance in Reading, Mathematics, and Science, (OECD Publishing, 2010), http://www.oecd.org/pisa/46643496.pdf.
19 Anthony Carnevale, Nicole Smith, and Michelle Melton, STEM, (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, 2011), http://www9.georgetown.edu/grad/gppi/hpi/cew/pdfs/stem-complete.pdf.
20 White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, "Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education in the 2013 Budget", http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/fy2013rd_stem.pdf.
21 "Labor Force Statistics including National Unemployment Rate," Bureau of Labor Statistics, accessed October 29, 2012, http://www.bls.gov/data/.
22 "Labor Force Statistics including National Unemployment Rate," Bureau of Labor Statistics, accessed October 29, 2012, http://www.bls.gov/data/.
23 See Adrienne L. Fernandes-Alcantara, Youth and the Labor Force: Background and Trends, (Washington D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2010) 12; see also Andrew Sum et al., The Historically Low Sumer and Year Round 2008 Teen Employment Rate: The Case for an Immediate National Public Policy Response to Create Jobs for the Nation’s Youth, (Boston: Center for Labor Market Studies, 2008) 4.
24 "Labor Force Statistics including National Unemployment Rate," Bureau of Labor Statistics, accessed October 29, 2012, http://www.bls.gov/data/.
25 Lisa B. Kahn, The Long-Term Labor Market Consequences of Graduating from College in a Bad Economy, (Yale School of Management, 2009), http://mba.yale.edu/faculty/pdf/kahn_long-termlabor.pdf.
26 Andrew Sum, Mykhalo Trubskyy, and Sheila Palma, The Great Recession of 2007–2009, the Lagging Jobs Recovery, and the Missing 5-6 Million National Labor Force Participants in 2011 Why We Should Care, (Chicago: Center for Labor Market Studies Northeastern University, 2012), 21, http://www.northeastern.edu/clms/wp-content/uploads/Lagging-Jobs-Recovery-Report-jan-2012.pdf.
27 Belfield, Levin, and Rosen, The Economic Value of Opportunity Youth, 1.
28 John M. Bridgeland and Jessica A. Milano, Opportunity Road: The Promise and Challenge of America’s Forgotten Youth ̧ (Civic Enterprises & America’s Promise Alliance, 2012), 33, http://www.serve.gov/new-images/council/pdf/opportunity_road_the_promise.pdf.
29 Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration, "PY10 National Summary of Performance Data," Table H1, http://www.doleta.gov/performance/results/#wiastann.
30 JobCorps, "Office ofg JobCorps Quarterly Highlights Report," JobCorps, http://www.jobcorps.gov/Libraries/pdf/10_4th_qtr.sflb.
31 YouthBuild USA., "Research," https://youthbuild.org/research.
32 Bridgeland and Milano, Opportunity Road, 32.
33 Funding level for Youth Opportunity Grants in 2000 retrieved from Clinton archive: The White House Office of Press Secretary, "The Clinton-Gore Administration: An Opportunity Agenda for America's Youth," (2000), http://clinton6.nara.gov/2000/02/2000-02-19-radio-address-paper-on-opportunity-agenda-for-american-youth.html.
34 National Priorities Project estimate of sequestration's impact on youth training programs.
35 Connolly, Trager, and Ney, National Service: Providing Pathways to Employment, 5.
36 Appropriations for the Corporation for National and Community Service FY2010–FY2012. "Legislative Update," Voices for National Service, accessed November 1, 2012, http://www.voicesforservice.org/legis_update.htm.
37 National Priorities Project estimate of sequestration's impact on AmeriCorps VISTA programs.